Vehicular networks as the key enablers in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and the Internet of Things (IoT) are key components of smart sustainable cities. Vehicles as a significant component of smart cities have emerging in-vehicle applications that can assist in good governance for sustainable smart cities. Most of these applications are delay sensitive and demand high computational capabilities that are provided by emerging technologies. Utilizing the distributed computational resources of vehicles with the help of volunteer computing is an efficient method to fulfill the high computational requirements of vehicles itself and the other components of smart cities. Vehicle as a resource is an emerging concept that must be considered to address the future challenges of sustainable smart cities. In this paper, an infrastructure-assisted job scheduling and task coordination mechanism in volunteer computing-based VANET called RSU-based VCBV is proposed, which enhances the architecture of VANET to utilize the surplus resources of vehicles for task execution. We propose job scheduling and task coordination algorithms for different volunteer models. Further, we design and implement an adaptive task replication method to seek fault tolerance by avoiding task failures due to locations of vehicles. We propose a task replication algorithm called location-based task replication algorithm. Extensive simulations validate the performance of our proposed volunteer models while comparing average task execution time and weight ratios with existing work.