After two decades of increasing interest and research activity, computer-assisted diagnostic approaches are reaching the stage where more routine deployment in clinical practice is becoming a possibility [Kruppinski, E.A., 2004. Computer-aided detection in clinical environment: Benefits and challenges for radiologists. Radiology 231, 7–9]. This is particularly the case in the analysis of mammographic images [Helvie, M.A., Hadjiiski, L., Makariou, E., Chan, H.P., Petrick, N., Sahiner, B., Lo, S.C., Freedman, M., Adler, D., Bailey, J., Blane, C., Hoff, D., Hunt, K., Joynt, L., Klein, K., Paramagul, C., Patterson, S.K., Roubidoux, M.A., 2004. Sensitivity of noncommercial computer-aided detection system for mammographic breast cancer detection: pilot clinical trial. Radiology 231, 208–214] and in the detection of pulmonary nodules [Reeves, A.P., Kostis, W.J., 2000. Computer-aided diagnosis for lung cancer. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 38, 497–509]. However, similar approaches can be applied more widely with the promise of increasing clinical utility in other areas. We review how computer-aided approaches may be applied in the diagnosis and staging of prostatic cancer. The current status of computer technology is reviewed, covering artificial neural networks for detection and staging, computerised biopsy simulation and computer-assisted analysis of ultrasound and magnetic resonance images.