Chronic urogenital schistosomiasis can lead to squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies the infection with S. haematobium as a group 1 carcinogen, a definitive cause of cancer. By contrast, hepatointestinal schistosomiasis due to the chronic infection with S. mansoni or S. japonicum associated with liver periportal fibrosis, does not apparently lead to malignancy. The effects of culturing human epithelial cells, HCV29, established from normal urothelium, and H69, established from cholangiocytes, in the presence of S. haematobium or S. mansoni eggs were investigated. Cell growth of cells co-cultured with schistosome eggs was monitored in real time, and gene expression analysis of oncogenesis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and apoptosis pathways was undertaken. Schistosome eggs promoted proliferation of the urothelial cells but inhibited growth of cholangiocytes. In addition, the tumor suppressor P53 pathway was significantly downregulated when exposed to schistosome eggs, and downregulation of estrogen receptor was predicted in urothelial cells exposed only to S. haematobium eggs. Overall, cell proliferative responses were influenced by both the tissue origin of the epithelial cells and the schistosome species.