Vaccination of neonatal calves with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) induces a significant degree of protection against bovine tuberculosis, caused by infection with virulent M. bovis. In two independent experiments, we assessed the duration of the protective immunity induced in calves by neonatal vaccination with BCG Danish. Protection from disease was assessed at 12 and 24 months postvaccination in cattle challenged via the endotracheal route with M. bovis. We also assessed antigen- specific immune responses to assess their utility as correlates of protection. At 12 months postvaccination, significant reductions in lung and lymph node pathologies were observed compared to nonvaccinated M. bovis-challenged control cattle. At 24 months post-BCG vaccination, there was a reduction in lung and lymph node pathology scores and in bacterial burden. However, when comparing vaccinated and control groups, this did not reach statistical significance. Vaccination induced long-lived antigen (purified protein derivative [PPD])-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release in whole-blood cultures, which remained above baseline levels for more than 20 months (approximately 90 weeks). The number of antigen-specific IFN-γ-secreting central memory T cells present at the time of M. bovis challenge was significantly higher in vaccinated than in control animals at 12 months postvaccination, but not at 24 months. Vaccination of neonatal calves with BCG Danish induced protective immune responses against bovine TB which were maintained for at least 12 months postvaccination. These studies provide data on the immunity induced by BCG vaccination in calves; the results could inform vaccination strategies for the control of bovine TB in United Kingdom cattle herds.