Stress can alter adaptive behaviours, and as well either enhance or diminish learning, memory formation and/or memory recall. We focus attention on how environmentally relevant stressors (e.g. predator detection, crowding, and low concentrations of environmental Ca++) alter memory formation in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We specifically look at operant conditioning of aerial respiration and whether or not long-term memory forms following the acquisition of the learned event, not performing aerial respiration. We will also examine the strain differences in Lymnaea which allow or cause isolated populations to possess different heritable cognitive capabilities, as manifested by differing abilities to form long-term memory.