Wheat line L88-31 was transformed with a gene encoding an extended form of subunit 1Dx5 to study the relationship between subunit size and the effect on dough mixing properties. Four transgenic lines were recovered, one of which expressed a truncated form of the protein with mobility between those of the wild type and extended subunits. Comparison of the Mixograph profiles and gluten protein compositions with those of the control lines and a line expressing the wild type subunit 1Dx5 transgene showed that two of the transgenic lines had poor mixing properties and that this was associated with co-suppression of HMW subunit gene expression. The other two transgenic lines had improved mixing properties (measured as increased mixing time) and this was associated with increased proportions of large glutenin polymers. None of the transgenic lines expressing the extended form of the 1Dx5 subunit showed the 'overstrong' mixing properties exhibited by transgenic lines expressing the wild type 1Dx5 transgene. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.