Rosette morphology across Arabidopsis accessions exhibits considerable variation. Here we report a high-throughput phenotyping approach based on automatic image analysis to quantify rosette shape and dissect the underlying genetic architecture. Shape measurements of the rosettes in a core set of Recombinant Inbred Lines from an advanced mapping population (Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross or MAGIC) derived from inter-crossing 19 natural accessions. Image acquisition and analysis was scaled to extract geometric descriptors from time stamped images of growing rosettes. Shape analyses revealed heritable morphological variation at early juvenile stages and QTL mapping resulted in over 116 chromosomal regions associated with trait variation within the population. Many QTL linked to variation in shape were located near genes related to hormonal signalling and signal transduction pathways while others are involved in shade avoidance and transition to flowering. Our results suggest rosette shape arises from modular integration of sub-organ morphologies and can be considered a functional trait subjected to selective pressures of subsequent morphological traits. On an applied aspect, QTLs found will be candidates for further research on plant architecture.