Homologous bivalent formation in amphidiploids of Lolium is promoted during meiosis by diploidising genes carried by A-chromosomes and by supernumerary B-chromosomes. The site and mode of action of these diploidising factors were investigated by comparing the relative frequencies of pairing configurations at meiotic prophase and metaphase I in several different hybrid genotypes. The results indicate that diploidising genes act predominatly by increasing the stringency of synapsis at early stages of meiotic prophase. By contrast, B-chromosomes appear to promote bivalent formation by ensuring that homoeologously paired chromosome segments within multivalents do not crossover. The results show that the additive effects of diploidising genes and B-chromosomes are to a certain extent separable in terms of their mode of action and timing during meiosis.