Genetic parameters of longevity in crossbred Mule ewes, and genetic relationships among longevity, growth, body composition, and subjectively assessed traits on Mule lambs and ewes have been estimated using Bayesian linear censored models. Additionally, the genetic associations between longevity and culling reasons were examined. Data comprised 1,797 observations of Mule ewes for longevity, culling reasons, growth, body composition, mouth scores, and type traits. Longevity was defined as the time (in years) from 2 yr of age (the age at first lambing of most ewes) to culling or death. Censored data (i.e., observations for which only the lower bound of the true longevity is known, such as when the animals are still alive) comprised 24% of all observations for longevity. Bivariate analyses were used to analyze the longevity of the ewe with each performance trait by fitting linear Bayesian models considering censored observations. Longevity was split into 3 different sub-traits: age at culling due to teeth/mouth conditions, age at culling due to udder conditions, and age at culling due to other culling reasons. These sub-traits and their aggregation into the overall trait of longevity were analyzed in a multiple-trait model. The heritability of longevity was moderate at 0.27, whereas heritabilities of the growth and body composition traits ranged from 0.11 for average of shoulder, loin, and gigot conformation to 0.36 for ewe BW at first premating. Mouth scores and type traits had heritabilities ranging from 0.13 for jaw position to 0.39 for fleece quality. All analyzed traits showed low genetic correlations with longevity, ranging from –0.20 for average conformation scores in live animals to 0.18 for tooth angle. Teeth/mouth conditions resulted in the greatest heritability (0.15) among the sub-traits based on the separate culling reasons. Genetic correlations between separate culling reasons were low to high (0.12 to 0.63 for teeth/mouth conditions with udder conditions and other culling reasons, respectively). Longevity may be preferred as a selection criterion because of (i) its moderate heritability compared with its component sub-traits based on specific culling reasons, and (ii) its moderate to high genetic correlation with these component sub-traits. The moderate heritability for longevity reflects the potential of this trait for genetic improvement, especially when longevity is based on clearly defined culling reasons.