Development of necrotic granulomas in response to Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle is pathognomonic for bovine tuberculosis. Previously our laboratory reported on M. bovis granuloma classification by stage of lesion advancement within bovine lymph nodes and developed immunohistochemical markers to further characterize these granulomas. In this study of bovine lymph node granulomas we applied this classification system to assess the dynamics of vaccination challenge. Lymph nodes collected from cattle vaccinated with M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and subsequently challenged with virulent M. bovis were compared to lymph nodes from unvaccinated, challenged cattle. Expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), type I procollagen and cell marker identification of T cells, B cells, macrophages and WC1+γδ TCR+ cells were assessed. Granulomas formed in vaccinated cattle were greatly reduced in number, area, degree of necrosis and peripheral fibrosis and contained fewer Langhans' giant cells, acid fast bacilli, WC1+γδ TCR+ cells and less TGF-β expression in comparison to controls. B cells clustered intensely along the outer granuloma margins within vaccinated calves, with significantly more IFN-γ producing cells identified in the medullary regions of lymph nodes from BCG-vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls. This may be indicative of immune activation and surveillance in regions not directly associated with ongoing disease. Lymph node evaluation using light microscopy and immunohistochemical markers is useful to assess the immune response and discriminate granulomas to determine vaccine efficacy and disease severity.