Bacterial species associated with the dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP)-producing phytoplankton Scrippsiella trochoidea were cultured and identified, with the aim of establishing their ability to metabolise DMSP, dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Results demonstrate that of the cultivable bacteria only α-Proteobacteria were capable of producing DMS from DMSP. The concentration of DMSP was shown to affect the amount of DMS produced. Lower DMSP concentrations (1. 5 μmol dm-3) were completely assimilated, whereas higher concentrations (10 μmol dm-3) resulted in increasing amounts of DMS being produced. By contrast to the restricted set of bacteria that metabolised DMSP, ~ 70% of the bacterial isolates were able to 'consume' DMS. However, 98-100% of the DMS removed was accounted for as DMSO. Notably, a number of these bacteria would only oxidise DMS in the presence of glucose, including members of the γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The observations from this study, coupled with published field data, identify DMS oxidation to DMSO as a major transformation pathway for DMS, and we speculate that the fate of DMS and DMSP in the field are tightly coupled to the available carbon produced by phytoplankton.