Milling and baking tests were carried out on three transgenic wheat lines and their parental varieties grown in the field at two UK sites. The transgenic and control lines were essentially similar in their milling properties but the subunit 1Ax1 and 1Dx5 transgenes had different effects on breadmaking. The subunit 1Dx5 transgene resulted in a low loaf volume and poor crumb structure when expressed in lines with two or five endogenous HMW subunits, and this was accompanied by a greatly increased elastic modulus of the gel protein fraction. In contrast, the 1Ax1 transgene resulted in improved breadmaking quality and a more modest increase in the gel protein elastic modulus when expressed in the two subunit background. Blending of flour from a line expressing the 1Dx5 transgene with flour from a normal breadmaking wheat variety resulted in decreased breadmaking quality, even at a ratio of 1:9. The difference in the results obtained with the 1Ax1 and 1Dx5 transgenes may relate to the presence of an additional cysteine residue in the protein encoded by the latter, which promotes a more highly cross-linked glutenin network. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.