In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis isolates in Cameroon, 75 isolates of M. bovis collected in three provinces of northern Cameroon were studied by spoligotyping. For 65 of these isolates, typing was also carried out by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with DraI, and 18 of the isolates were also typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with probe IS6110-RHS. Molecular typing of the isolates by these techniques revealed a high degree of homogeneity, with 10 spoligotypes for 75 isolates, four PFGE profiles for 65 isolates, and three RFLP types for 18 isolates. Some types were present in the three different provinces, while some were confined to one or two areas. These results suggest that geographical mapping of M. bovis strains could be helpful for the control of bovine tuberculosis at the regional level. An interesting feature of all the spoligotypes was the absence of spacer 30, suggesting a common origin for all of the Cameroon isolates tested; an evolutionary scenario for the isolates is discussed. In addition, a comparison of the three techniques showed that for M. bovis strain differentiation in Cameroon and in surrounding countries, spoligotyping would be a more discriminating and practical tool for molecular typing than the other two techniques used in this study.