Clutia lanceolata Forssk. (C. lanceolata) is a medicinal plant native to sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of C. lanceolata yielded twenty-one coumarins including methylthio and methylsulfinyl-coumarins. Thirteen of these compounds are reported here for the first time, named as cluteolin A to M. The remaining eight compounds are known but have not been associated previously with C. lanceolata. The structures of the undescribed compounds were elucidated from their 2D NMR and MS spectra. Single crystal X-ray analyses confirmed the structures of eleven compounds. As, in Saudi Arabian tradition, C. lanceolata has been reported to have anti-diabetic and anti-fungal properties, the coumarins were examined for their biological activity. Seven compounds strongly enhanced the glucose-triggered release of insulin by murine pancreatic islets, with two compounds showing more than two-fold enhancement of insulin secretion, compared with the standard drug glimepiride.