The genetic diversity of UK, US and Australian wheat varieties over the period of modern plant breeding is estimated using diversity array technology markers. Diversity is assessed by both genetic distance between varieties, by AMOVA and as the volumes of multi-dimensional convex hulls estimated from principal co-ordinate analysis. At the whole genome level the three populations are genetically distinct; this is also true of the B genome. However, the US and Australian D genomes are found to occupy the same region of diversity space and the A genomes for these countries are partially overlapping. The use of high-density genotyping with a common marker set allows an unprecedented direct comparison between the diversities of the national populations, between individual genomes and the fluctuation of diversity over time. The highest genetic diversity amongst varieties is reported in the Australian population followed by the US, which in turn is more diverse than the UK. However the average diversity of loci is higher in the US set than in the Australian. Non-random fluctuations in genetic diversity over time are observed.