3D comparison of average faces in subjects with oral clefts

Iman Bugaighis, Bernie Tiddeman, Clare R. Mattick, Ross Hobson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (SciVal)


This prospective cross-sectional, case-controlled morphometric study assessed three dimensional (3D) facial morphological differences between average faces of 103 children aged 8–12 years; 40 with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 23 with unilateral cleft lip and alveolus (UCLA), 19 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), 21 with isolated cleft palate (ICP), and 80 gender and age-matched controls. 3D stereophotogrammetric facial scans were recorded for each participant at rest. Thirty-nine landmarks were digitized for each scan, and x-, y-, z-coordinates for each landmark were extracted. A 3D photorealistic average face was constructed for each participating group and subjective and objective comparisons were carried out between each cleft and control average faces. Marked differences were observed
between all groups. The most severely affected were groups where the lip and palate were affected and repaired (UCLP and UCLA). The group with midsagittal palatal deformity and repair (ICP) was the most similar to the control group. The results revealed that 3D shape analysis allows morphometric discrimination between subjects with craniofacial anomalies and the control group, and underlines the potential value of statistical shape analysis in assessing the outcomes of cleft lip and palate surgery, and orthodontic treatment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-372
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Orthodontics
Issue number4
Early online date20 Nov 2012
Publication statusPublished - 2012


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