A computational model of degeneracy in a lymph node

Paul S. Andrews*, Jon Timmis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference Proceeding (Non-Journal item)

10 Citations (SciVal)


This paper highlights degeneracy as being an important property in both the immune system and biology in general. From this, degeneracy is chosen as a candidate to inspire artificial immune systems. As a first step in exploiting the power of degeneracy, we follow the conceptual framework approach and build an abstract computational model in order to understand the properties of degenerate detectors free of any application bias. The model we build is based on the activation of TH cell in the lymph node, as lymph nodes are the sites in the body where the adaptive immune response to foreign antigen in the lymph are activated. The model contains APC, antigen and TH cell agents that move and interact in a 2-dirnensional cellular space. The TH cell agent receptors are assumed to be degenerate and their response to different antigen agents is measured. Initial observations and results of our model are presented and highlight; some of the possibilities of degenerate detector recognition.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationArtificial Immune Systems - 5th International Conference, ICARIS 2006. Proceedings
EditorsHugues Bersini, Jorge Carneiro
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)3540377492, 9783540377498
Publication statusPublished - 2006
Event5th International Conference on Artificial Immune Systems, ICARIS 2006 - Oeiras, Portugal
Duration: 04 Sept 200606 Sept 2006

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume4163 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference5th International Conference on Artificial Immune Systems, ICARIS 2006
Period04 Sept 200606 Sept 2006


  • adaptive immune response
  • cell agent
  • foreign antigen
  • chemical space
  • cellular space


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