We have cloned, sequenced, and heterologously expressed a periplasmic cytochrome c from a lupanine-utilizing Pseudomonas putida strain. Aerobic batch cultivation of Escherichia coli TB1 harboring the cytochrome c gene placed downstream of the lac promoter in pUC9 vector resulted in significant production of the holo-cytochrome c in the periplasm (4 mg of hemoprotein/liter of culture). The recombinant cytochrome c was purified to homogeneity and was found to be functional in accepting electrons from lupanine hydroxylase while catalyzing hydroxylation of lupanine. Comparison of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the isolated cytochrome c with that deduced from the DNA sequence indicated that the signal sequence was processed at the bond position predicted by the SigPep program. The molecular size of the cytochrome c determined by electrospray mass spectrometry (9,595) was in precise agreement with that predicted from the nucleotide sequence.