A metabolomics based test of independent action and concentration addition using the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

A. J. Baylay, D. J. Spurgeon, C. Svendsen, J. L. Griffin, Suresh C. Swain, Stephen R. Sturzenbaum, O. A. H. Jones*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Citations (SciVal)

Abstract

A major challenge in ecotoxicology is to understand the effects of multiple toxicants on organisms. Here we assess the effects on survival, weight change, cocoon production and metabolism caused by exposure to two similarly acting (imidacloprid/thiacloprid) and two dissimilarly acting (chlorpyrifos/Nickel) chemicals on the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. We assessed the standard models of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), in conjunction with a metabolomics based approach to elucidate mechanisms of effect. For imidacloprid and thiacloprid the reproductive effects indicated probable additivity. Although this suggests joint effects through a similar mechanism, metabolite changes for each pesticide actually indicated distinct effects. Further, earthworms exposed to a 0.5 toxic unit equitoxic mixture demonstrated metabolic effects intermediate between those for each pesticide, indicating a non-interactive, independent joint effect. For higher effect level mixtures (1 and 1.5 toxic units), metabolite changes associated with thiacloprid exposure began to dominate. The metabolomic effects of the two dissimilarly acting chemicals were distinct, confirming separate modes of action and both proved more toxic than anticipated from previous studies. In the mixtures, phenotypic effects were in accordance with IA estimates, while metabolite changes were dominated by Ni effects, even though chlorpyrifos contributed most to reproductive toxicity. This could be attributed to the greater systematic effect of Ni when compared to the more specifically acting chlorpyrifos.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1436-1447
Number of pages12
JournalEcotoxicology
Volume21
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jul 2012

Keywords

  • CHEMICAL-MIXTURES
  • Additive effects
  • SPECTROSCOPY
  • EISENIA
  • Mixtures
  • System toxicology
  • EXTRACTION
  • Biomarkers
  • CADMIUM
  • NEMATODE CAENORHABDITIS-ELEGANS
  • Metabonomics
  • SAMPLES
  • TOXICITY
  • BIOMARKERS
  • SITES

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