A Robust Deep Model for Classification of Peptic Ulcer and Other Digestive Tract Disorders Using Endoscopic Images

Saqib Mahmood, MMS Fareed, G Ahmed, Farhan Dawood, S Zikria, Ahmad Mostafa, SF Jilani, Muhammad Asad, Muhammad Aslam

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Accurate patient disease classification and detection through deep-learning (DL) models are increasingly contributing to the area of biomedical imaging. The most frequent gastrointestinal (GI) tract ailments are peptic ulcers and stomach cancer. Conventional endoscopy is a painful and hectic procedure for the patient while Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a useful technology for diagnosing GI problems and doing painless gut imaging. However, there is still a challenge to investigate thousands of images captured during the WCE procedure accurately and efficiently because existing deep models are not scored with significant accuracy on WCE image analysis. So, to prevent emergency conditions among patients, we need an efficient and accurate DL model for real-time analysis. In this study, we propose a reliable and efficient approach for classifying GI tract abnormalities using WCE images by applying a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). For this purpose, we propose a custom CNN architecture named GI Disease-Detection Network (GIDD-Net) that is designed from scratch with relatively few parameters to detect GI tract disorders more accurately and efficiently at a low computational cost. Moreover, our model successfully distinguishes GI disorders by visualizing class activation patterns in the stomach bowls as a heat map. The Kvasir-Capsule image dataset has a significant class imbalance problem, we exploited a synthetic oversampling technique BORDERLINE SMOTE (BL-SMOTE) to evenly distribute the image among the classes to prevent the problem of class imbalance. The proposed model is evaluated against various metrics and achieved the following values for evaluation metrics: 98.9%, 99.8%, 98.9%, 98.9%, 98.8%, and 0.0474 for accuracy, AUC, F1-score, precision, recall, and loss, respectively. From the simulation results, it is noted that the proposed model outperforms other state-of-the-art models in all the evaluation metrics.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2195
Number of pages26
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 05 Sept 2022


  • deep learning
  • image classification
  • supervised learning
  • imbalanced dataset
  • WCE dataset
  • computer-aided diagnosis
  • class activation


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