Adherence to inhaled corticosteroids by asthmatic patients: Measurement and modelling

Amelia Taylor, Li Chia Chen, Murray D. Smith*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (SciVal)
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Background: Poor adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is known as the main cause for therapeutic failure in asthma treatment and associated morbidity. To improve adherence, targetted and effective interventions need to be developed ideally based on using longitudinal follow-up of a large study cohort to establish patterns and influences on adherence. Objective: To develop an annual measure of asthma patients' adherence to ICS using primary care prescribing data over consecutive annual intervals, and to statistically model ICS adherence controlling for a range of patient factors. Setting: A retrospective cohort study between 1997 and 2010 using United Kingdom general practice prescribing data on asthma patients aged between 12 and 65 years, without a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Method: Patient's ICS prescriptions are used to calculate the 'number of days prescribed during calendar year' divided by 'number of days in the interval' to form an annual prescription possession ratio (PPR) for each patient. Several definitions of PPR are considered and compared when calculating numerator and denominator. Adherence, measured by the preferred PPR, is then modelled to estimate the effect of asthma exacerbation, severity, control and other patient factors on adherence. Main outcome measure: PPR, being a proxy measure for adherence. Results: Annual PPR by all strategies gave a similar frequency profile. ICS were either overor under-prescribed for over half of the follow-up time. Adherence was lower in younger patients, those newer to the study timeframe, those with less severe asthma, those with good control, with lower previous adherence, and who had not previously experienced an exacerbation. Conclusion: The chosen PPR simulated clinical use of ICS most closely; including overlapping days, excess days passed to the next interval, considering gaps in the denominator, with censoring at 100%. The PPR is a useful measure for signalling or measuring adherence changes over time. The modelling results identified many characteristics which would indicate which asthma patients and at what points in their treatment cycle they would be at increased risk of low adherence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112-119
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Issue number1
Early online date01 Dec 2013
Publication statusPublished - 01 Feb 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Adherence
  • Asthma
  • Exacerbation
  • Panel data
  • Prescription possession ratio
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Models, Psychological
  • Male
  • Asthma/drug therapy
  • Medication Adherence/psychology
  • Young Adult
  • Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data
  • Adolescent
  • Sex Factors
  • Female
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage
  • Aged
  • Primary Health Care
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies


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