Time series of satellite sensor data have been used to quantify mangrove cover changes at regional and global levels. Although mangrove forests have been monitored using remote sensing techniques, the use of time series to quantify the regeneration of these forests still remains limited. In this study, we focus on the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR) located in Peninsular Malaysia, which has been under silvicultural management since 1902 and provided the opportunity to investigate the use of Landsat annual time series (1988–2015) for (i) detecting clear-felling events that take place in the reserve as part of the local management, and (ii) tracing back and quantifying the early regeneration of mangrove forest patches after clear-felling. Clear-felling events were detected for each year using the Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) derived from single date (cloud-free) or multi-date composites of Landsat sensor data. From this series, we found that the average period for the NDMI to recover to values observed prior to the clear-felling event between 1988 and 2015 was 5.9 ± 2.7 years. The maps created in this study can be used to guide the replantation strategies, the clear-felling planning, and the management and monitoring activities of the MMFR.
- Time series