Associations between biopsychosocial factors and transportation patterns of older adults residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia

Nurul Syuhada Mohd Rosnu, Wan Syafra Ishak, Mohd Harimi Abd Rahman, Suzana Shahar, Charles Musselwhite, Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Abdul Rais Abdul Latif, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh

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Introduction: Aging is associated with physiological changes in multiple systems in the body and may impact the transportation choices of older adults. In this study, we examine the associations between biopsychosocial factors and the transportation choices of Malaysian older adults. Methods: One hundred and nineteen (119) older adults, aged 60 and above, living in Klang Valley, Malaysia were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed face-to-face to obtain sociodemographic data, health status (whether there were and, if yes, the number of comorbidities), outdoor mobility and transportation patterns, Instrumental Activity Daily Living (IADL) status and cognitive function. Participants’ physical performance (dominant handgrip strength, 10-m walk, and timed up and go tests), hearing threshold (pure tone audiometry), and vision function (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity) were measured. Transportation patterns of older adults were categorized into three groups, that is, flexible (using public transport and/or private vehicles), using only private vehicles and restricted (relying on others or walking). Results: Further information is needed to enable such older adults as older women, those with comorbidities and poorer functional status to access transportation, especially to meet their health care needs. Discussion: The majority (51%) of participants were in the ‘using only private vehicles’ group, followed by the ‘flexibles’ (25%) and the ‘restricted’ (24%). Factors significantly associated with the restricted transportation group were: (a) being female (AdjOR 15.39, 95% CI 0.86–23.39, p < 0.001); (b) being Malay (AdjOR 21.72, 95% CI 0.36–16.12, p < 0.001); (c) having higher number of comorbidities (AdjOR 14.01, 95% CI 0.20–13.21, p = 0.007); and (d) being dependent in IADL (AdjOR 13.48, 95% CI 0.51–1.78, p = 0.002).
Original languageEnglish
Article number1153822
Number of pages11
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2023


  • Older Adults
  • ageing
  • Gerontology
  • Transport
  • Health
  • Mobility
  • biopsychosocial factors
  • older driver
  • aging
  • transportation patterns
  • outdoor mobility
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Malaysia/epidemiology
  • Transportation
  • Male
  • Aging
  • Female
  • Aged
  • Hand Strength


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