Blumeria graminis interactions with barley conditioned by different single R genes demonstrate a temporal and spatial relationship between stomatal dysfunction and cell death

Elena Prats, Alan P. Gay, Peter C. Roberts, Barry John Thomas, Ruth Sanderson, Neil Paveley, Michael F. Lyngkjaer, Timothy L. W. Carver, Luis A. J. Mur

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (SciVal)

Abstract

Hypersensitive response (HR) against Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei infection in barley (Hordeum vulgare) was associated with stomata “lock-up” leading to increased leaf water conductance (gl). Unique spatio-temporal patterns of HR formation occurred in barley with Mla1, Mla3, or MlLa R genes challenged with B. graminis f. sp. hordei. With Mla1, a rapid HR, limited to epidermal cells, arrested fungal growth before colonies initiated secondary attacks. With Mla3, mesophyll HR preceded that in epidermal cells whose initial survival supported secondary infections. With MlLa, mesophyll survived and not all attacked epidermal cells died immediately, allowing colony growth and secondary infection until arrested. Isolines with Mla1, Mla3, or MlLa genes inoculated with B. graminis f. sp. hordei ranging from 1 to 100 conidia mm2 showed abnormally high gl during dark periods whose timing and extent correlated with those of each HR. Each isoline showed increased dark gl with the nonpathogen B. graminis f. sp. avenae which caused a single epidermal cell HR. Guard cell autofluorescence was seen only after drying of epidermal strips and closure of stomata suggesting that locked open stomata were viable. The data link stomatal lock-up to HR associated cell death and has implications for strategies for selecting disease resistant genotypes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-32
Number of pages12
JournalPhytopathology
Volume100
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2010

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