Chemical, physical, and sensory properties of dairy products enriched with conjugated linoleic acid

E L Jones, K J Shingfield, C Kohen, A K Jones, B Lupoli, A S Grandison, D E Beever, C M Williams, P C Calder, P Yaqoob

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Recent studies have illustrated the effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on human health. Ruminant-derived meat, milk and dairy products are the predominant sources of cis-9,trans-11 CLA in the human diet. This study evaluated the processing properties, texture, storage characteristics, and organoleptic properties of UHT milk, Caerphilly cheese, and butter produced from a milk enriched to a level of cis-9,trans-11 CLA that has been shown to have biological effects in humans. Forty-nine early-lactation Holstein-British Friesian cows were fed total mixed rations containing 0 (control) or 45 g/kg (on dry matter basis) of a mixture (1:2 wt/wt) of fish oil and sunflower oil during two consecutive 7-d periods to produce a control and CLA-enhanced milk, respectively. Milk produced from cows fed the control and fish and sunflower oil diets contained 0.54 and 4.68 g of total CLA/100 g of fatty acids, respectively. Enrichment of CLA in raw milk from the fish and sunflower oil diet was also accompanied by substantial increases in trans C18:1 levels, lowered C18:0, cis-C18:1, and total saturated fatty acid concentrations, and small increases in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The CLA-enriched milk was used for the manufacture of UHT milk, butter, and cheese. Both the CLA-enhanced butter and cheese were less firm than control products. Although the sensory profiles of the CLA-enriched milk, butter, and cheese differed from those of the control products with respect to some attributes, the overall impression and flavor did not differ. In conclusion, it is feasible to produce CLA-enriched dairy products with acceptable storage and sensory characteristics.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2923-2937
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2005


  • Animals
  • Butter
  • Cattle
  • Cheese
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Dairy Products
  • Diet
  • Fats
  • Fatty Acids
  • Female
  • Fish Oils
  • Food Handling
  • Food Preservation
  • Food, Fortified
  • Hot Temperature
  • Lactation
  • Linoleic Acids, Conjugated
  • Milk
  • Milk Proteins
  • Physicochemical Phenomena
  • Plant Oils
  • Sensation
  • Taste


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