Combining spectral unmixing and 3D/2D dense networks with early-exiting strategy for hyperspectral image classification

Bei Fang, Yunpeng Bai, Ying Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (SciVal)
11 Downloads (Pure)


Recently, Hyperspectral Image (HSI) classification methods based on deep learning models have shown encouraging performance. However, the limited numbers of training samples, as well as the mixed pixels due to low spatial resolution, have become major obstacles for HSI classification. To tackle these problems, we propose a resource-efficient HSI classification framework which introduces adaptive spectral unmixing into a 3D/2D dense network with early-exiting strategy. More specifically, on one hand, our framework uses a cascade of intermediate classifiers throughout the 3D/2D dense network that is trained end-to-end. The proposed 3D/2D dense network that integrates 3D convolutions with 2D convolutions is more capable of handling spectral-spatial features, while containing fewer parameters compared with the conventional 3D convolutions, and further boosts the network performance with limited training samples. On another hand, considering the existence of mixed pixels in HSI data, the pixels in HSI classification are divided into hard samples and easy samples. With the early-exiting strategy in these intermediate classifiers, the average accuracy can be improved by reducing the amount of computation cost for easy samples, thus focusing on classifying hard samples. Furthermore, for hard samples, an adaptive spectral unmixing method is proposed as a complementary source of information for classification, which brings considerable benefits to the final performance. Experimental results on four HSI benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve better performance than state-of-the-art deep learning-based methods and other traditional HSI classification methods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number779
Number of pages23
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 29 Feb 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D/2D convolution
  • Adaptive spectral unmixing
  • Dense network
  • Early-exiting strategy
  • hyperspectral image classification


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