Complete genome sequence of the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum

Susanne Schneiker, Olena Perlova, Olaf Kaiser, Klaus Gerth, Aysel Alici, Matthias O Altmeyer, Daniela Bartels, Thomas Bekel, Stefan Beyer, Edna Bode, Helge B Bode, Christoph J Bolten, Jomuna V Choudhuri, Sabrina Doss, Yasser A Elnakady, Bettina Frank, Lars Gaigalat, Alexander Goesmann, Carolin Groeger, Frank GrossLars Jelsbak, Lotte Jelsbak, Jörn Kalinowski, Carsten Kegler, Tina Knauber, Sebastian Konietzny, Maren Kopp, Lutz Krause, Daniel Krug, Bukhard Linke, Taifo Mahmud, Rosa Martinez-Arias, Alice C McHardy, Michelle Merai, Folker Meyer, Sascha Mormann, Jose Muñoz-Dorado, Juana Perez, Silke Pradella, Shwan Rachid, Günter Raddatz, Frank Rosenau, Christian Rückert, Florenz Sasse, Maren Scharfe, Stephan C Schuster, Garret Suen, Anke Treuner-Lange, Gregory J Velicer, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter, Kira J Weissman, Roy D Welch, Silke C Wenzel, David E Whitworth, Susanne Wilhelm, Christoph Wittmann, Helmut Blöcker, Alfred Pühler, Rolf Müller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The genus Sorangium synthesizes approximately half of the secondary metabolites isolated from myxobacteria, including the anti-cancer metabolite epothilone. We report the complete genome sequence of the model Sorangium strain S. cellulosum So ce56, which produces several natural products and has morphological and physiological properties typical of the genus. The circular genome, comprising 13,033,779 base pairs, is the largest bacterial genome sequenced to date. No global synteny with the genome of Myxococcus xanthus is apparent, revealing an unanticipated level of divergence between these myxobacteria. A large percentage of the genome is devoted to regulation, particularly post-translational phosphorylation, which probably supports the strain's complex, social lifestyle. This regulatory network includes the highest number of eukaryotic protein kinase-like kinases discovered in any organism. Seventeen secondary metabolite loci are encoded in the genome, as well as many enzymes with potential utility in industry.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1281-1289
Number of pages9
JournalNature Biotechnology
Issue number11
Early online date28 Oct 2007
Publication statusPublished - 2007


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