Continuity and hybridity in language revival: The case of Manx

Christopher Lewin*

*Corresponding author for this work

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This article presents a typology of phonological, morphosyntactic, and lexical features illustrative of factors conditioning the usage of speakers and writers of Revived Manx, including substratal influence from English; language ideologies prevalent within the revival movement, especially forms of linguistic purism; and language-specific features of Manx and its orthography. Evidence is taken primarily from a corpus of Revived Manx speech and writing. The observed features of Revived Manx are situated within Zuckermann's (2009, 2020) framework of 'hybridization' and 'revival linguistics', which takes Israeli Hebrew as the prototypical model of revernacularization of a non-L1 language. However, Manx arguably provides a more typical example of what to expect when a revived minority language remains predominantly an L2 for an indefinite period, with each new cohort of speakers able to reshape the target variety in the absence of a firmly established L1 norm. (Manx, Celtic, language revival, language ideology, language shift, language contact)∗

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)663-691
Number of pages29
JournalLanguage in Society
Issue number4
Early online date12 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 04 Sept 2022


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