Developing a food exposure and urine sampling strategy for dietary exposure biomarker validation in free-living individuals

Amanda Lloyd, Naomi D. Willis, Thomas Wilson, Hassan Zubair, Long Xie, Edward S. Chambers, Isabel Garcia-Perez, Kathleen Tailliart, Manfred Beckmann, John C. Mathers, John Draper

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Dietary choices modulate the risk of chronic diseases and improving diet is a central component of public health strategies. Food-derived metabolites present in urine could provide objective biomarkers of dietary exposure. To assist biomarker validation, this work aims to develop a food intervention strategy mimicking a typical annual diet over a short period of time and assesses urine sampling protocols potentially suitable for future deployment of biomarker technology in free-living populations.

Methods and results
Six different menu plans comprehensively represent a typical UK annual diet that is split into two dietary experimental periods. Free-living adult participants (n = 15 and n = 36, respectively) are provided with all their food, as a series of menu plans, over a period of three consecutive days. Multiple spot urine samples are collected and stored at home.

A successful food exposure strategy is established following a conventional UK eating pattern, which is suitable for biomarker validation in free-living individuals. The urine sampling procedure is acceptable for volunteers and delivered samples suitable for biomarker quantification. The study design provides scope for validation of existing biomarker candidates and potentially for discovery of new biomarker leads, and should help inform the future deployment of biomarker technology for habitual dietary exposure measurement.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1900062
JournalMolecular Nutrition and Food Research
Issue number14
Early online date17 Jun 2019
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2019


  • dietary-exposure
  • urine-sampling
  • biomarker
  • free-living
  • metabolomics
  • dietary exposure
  • biomarkers
  • urine sampling
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • United Kingdom
  • Young Adult
  • Diet
  • Biomarkers/urine
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Aged
  • Acidosis
  • Urine Specimen Collection/methods
  • Food


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