Development and Initial Validation of the Impression Motivation in Sport Questionnaire – Team

Simon Payne, Joanne Hudson, Sally Akehurst, Nikos Ntoumanis

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    17 Citations (SciVal)


    Impression motivation is an important individual difference variable that has been under-researched in sport psychology, partly due to having no appropriate measure. This study was conducted to design a measure of impression motivation in team-sport athletes. Construct validity checks decreased the initial pool of items, factor analysis (n = 310) revealed the structure of the newly developed scale, and exploratory structural equation modeling procedures (n = 406) resulted in a modified scale that retained theoretical integrity and psychometric parsimony. This process produced a 15-item, 4-factor model; the Impression Motivation in Sport Questionnaire–Team (IMSQ-T) is forwarded as a valid measure of the respondent’s dispositional strength of motivation to use self-presentation in striving for four distinct interpersonal objectives: self-development, social identity development, avoidance of negative outcomes, and avoidance of damaging impressions. The availability of this measure has contributed to theoretical development, will facilitate research, and offers a tool for use in applied settings.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)281-298
    Number of pages18
    JournalJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013


    • self-presentation
    • impression management
    • scale development
    • Measurement
    • factor analysis
    • exploratory structural equation modeling


    Dive into the research topics of 'Development and Initial Validation of the Impression Motivation in Sport Questionnaire – Team'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this