Encoding and estimation of first-and second-order binocular disparity in natural images

Paul B. Hibbard, Ross Goutcher, David W. Hunter

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The first stage of processing of binocular information in the visual cortex is performed by mechanisms that are bandpass-tuned for spatial frequency and orientation. Psychophysical and physiological evidence have also demonstrated the existence of second-order mechanisms in binocular processing, which can encode disparities that are not directly accessible to first-order mechanisms. We compared the responses of first- and second-order binocular filters to natural images. We found that the responses of the second-order mechanisms are to some extent correlated with the responses of the first-order mechanisms, and that they can contribute to increasing both the accuracy, and depth range, of binocular stereopsis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)108-120
JournalVision Research
Early online date14 Jan 2016
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2016


  • Binocular disparity
  • Depth perception
  • Second-order stereopsis
  • Natural images
  • Binocular energy model


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