Engineered applications of ureolytic biomineralization: a review

Adrienne J. Phillips, Robin Gerlach, Ellen Lauchnor, Andrew C. Mitchell, Alfred B. Cunningham, Lee Spangler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

301 Citations (SciVal)


Microbially-induced calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation (MICP) is a widely explored and promising technology for use in various engineering applications. In this review, CaCO3 precipitation induced via urea hydrolysis (ureolysis) is examined for improving construction materials, cementing porous media, hydraulic control, and remediating environmental concerns. The control of MICP is explored through the manipulation of three factors: (1) the ureolytic activity (of microorganisms), (2) the reaction and transport rates of substrates, and (3) the saturation conditions of carbonate minerals. Many combinations of these factors have been researched to spatially and temporally control precipitation. This review discusses how optimization of MICP is attempted for different engineering applications in an effort to highlight the key research and development questions necessary to move MICP technologies toward commercial scale applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)715-733
Issue number6
Early online date27 Jun 2013
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jul 2013


  • calcium carbonate
  • urea hydrolysis
  • biofilm
  • MICP
  • mineral precipitation
  • mineralization


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