Equilibrium states of confined ions in two dimensions

Adil Mughal, Stefan Hutzler, Denis Weaire

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (SciVal)
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Ions that are trapped in two dimensions and are subject to a harmonic confining potential have widely varying stationary states that exhibit various asymptotic forms and bifurcations. We present a ‘birds-eye’ view of these structures for N = 2 to 5 ions, and the full range of anisotropy. These results may be interrogated in detail using the software provided here. Energy variations at bifurcation points and limits are also identified; for N = 5 these include blue-sky (or saddle-node) bifurcations. A limited attempt is also made to explore such features for a larger system of ions, i.e. N = 10.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)595-609
Number of pages15
JournalPhilosophical Magazine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 03 Feb 2023


  • computation
  • computer modelling
  • morphology


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