It is demonstrated that, in etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) epicotyls, ethylene affects the activation of both monomeric GTP-binding proteins (monomeric G-proteins) and protein kinases. For monomeric G-proteins, the effect may be a rapid (2 min) and bimodal up-regulation, a transiently unimodal activation, or a transient down-regulation. Pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene abolishes the response to ethylene overall. Immunoprecipitation studies indicate that some of the monomeric G-proteins affected may be of the Rab class. Protein kinase activity is rapidly up-regulated by ethylene, the effect is inhibited by 1-methylcyclopropene, and the activation is bimodal. Immunoprecipitation indicates that the kinase(s) are of the MAP kinase ERK1 group. It is proposed that the data support the hypothesis that a transduction chain exists that is separate and antagonistic to that currently revealed by studies on Arabidopsis mutants.