In the search for improved tools with which to control bovine tuberculosis, the development of enhanced immunodiagnostic reagents is a high priority. Such reagents are required to improve the performance of tuberculin-based reagents and allow the discrimination of vaccinated cattle from those infected with Mycobacterium bovis. In this study, we identified the immunodominant, frequently recognized peptides from Rv3873, Rv3879c, Rv0288, and Rv3019c, which, together with peptides comprising the current lead diagnostic antigens, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, were formulated into a peptide cocktail. In a test of naturally infected cattle, this cocktail was significantly better than tuberculin was for identifying skin test-negative animals with confirmed bovine tuberculosis. In addition, the specificity of this cocktail was not compromised by Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination. In summary, our results prioritize this peptide-based, fully synthetic reagent for assessment in larger trials.