Framing the change and changing frames: Tensions in participative strategy development

Angelika Zimmermann*, Jasper O. Kenter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (SciVal)
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Participative strategy development serves to integrate the interests and perspectives of multiple stakeholders involved in today's complex environmental challenges, aiming at a better-informed strategy for tackling these challenges, increased stakeholder ownership, and more democratic decision making. Prior research has observed inherent tensions between the need for participative strategy to be open to stakeholders' input and the need for closure and guidance. We extend this reasoning using a framing perspective. Our evidence from the development of the England Peat Action Plan suggests that tensions can emerge between the necessary ambiguous initial framing of intended change and the persistence of stakeholders' different framings of this change as well as perceptions of lacking knowledge, guidance, and control. We argue that strategy openness can thereby impede stakeholders' willingness and ability to change and counteract the strategy's aim for major transformation. Interactive spaces help mitigate the tensions and facilitate stakeholders' willingness and ability for change.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-113
Number of pages33
JournalPolitics & Policy
Issue number1
Early online date20 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - 08 Feb 2023


  • co-creation
  • co-production
  • collaborative governance
  • decision making
  • deliberative monetary valuation
  • ecosystem services
  • England Peat Action Plan
  • environmental sustainability
  • framing
  • open strategy
  • participation
  • participative strategy development
  • public policy
  • stakeholder engagement
  • stakeholders


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