Gene Technology, Biological Weapons, and the Security of Science

Christian Enemark, Ian Ramshaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (SciVal)


This article addresses the security challenge posed by laboratory research involving genetic modification of microorganisms that could be applied for both benign and malevolent purposes. The authors propose that, for biological arms control purposes, a global governance culture is required to manage the security risks inherent in such research while minimizing scientific opportunity costs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)624-641
Number of pages18
JournalSecurity Studies
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 08 Oct 2009


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