Goats primed with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and boosted with a recombinant adenovirus expressing Ag85A show enhanced protection against tuberculosis

Bernat Pérez De Val*, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos, Miquel Nofrarías, Sergio López-Soria, Nadine Romera, Mahavir Singh, F. Xavier Abad, Zhou Xing, H. Martin Vordermeier, Mariano Domingo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (SciVal)


This is the first efficacy study using the experimental goat model, a natural host of tuberculosis (TB), to evaluate the efficacy of heterologous Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prime followed by boosting with a replication-deficient adenovirus expressing the antigen Ag85A (AdAg85A). Three experimental groups of 11 goat kids each were used: BCG vaccinated, BCG vaccinated and AdAg85A boosted, and nonvaccinated. Twenty-two goat kids were vaccinated with ∼5 × 105 CFU of BCG (week 0), and 11 of them were boosted at week 8 with 109 PFU of AdAg85A. At week 14, all goats were challenged by the endobronchial route with ∼1.5 × 103 CFU of Mycobacterium caprae. The animals were euthanized at week 28. Cellular and humoral immunity induced by vaccination and M. caprae infection was measured throughout the study. After challenge BCG-AdAg85A-vaccinated animals exhibited reduced pathology compared to BCG-vaccinated animals in lungs and in pulmonary lymph nodes. There were significant reductions in bacterial load in both groups of vaccinated goats, but the reduction was more pronounced in prime-boosted animals. Antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and humoral responses were identified as prognostic biomarkers of vaccination outcome depending on their correlation with pathological and bacteriological results. As far as we know, this is the first report using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to measure vaccine efficacy against pulmonary TB in an animal model. The use in vaccine trials of animals that are natural hosts of TB may improve research into human TB vaccines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1339-1347
Number of pages9
JournalClinical and Vaccine Immunology
Issue number9
Early online date28 Aug 2012
Publication statusPublished - 01 Sept 2012


  • Acyltransferases/genetics
  • Adenoviridae/genetics
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
  • Antigens, Bacterial/genetics
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Carriers
  • Female
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Goats
  • Interferon-gamma/metabolism
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology
  • Lung/pathology
  • Lymph Nodes/pathology
  • Mycobacterium bovis/immunology
  • Tuberculosis/immunology
  • Tuberculosis Vaccines/administration & dosage
  • Vaccination/methods
  • Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage


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