Four non-lactating cows were offered a maintenance diet of hay wafer and a commercial concentrate. They were housed in a thermoneutral (TN; 20°C) and then a hot (30°C) environment in an artificial climate chamber. Glucose, arginine, butyrate, and insulin were administered through one jugular catheter, and from a catheter on the other side venous blood was collected. The peak increments in plasma insulin after the glucose and butyrate administrations were lower during heat exposure. The response of insulin after arginine injection was smaller in the hot compared with the thermoneutral environment; however, arginine injection resulted in a significantly higher secretion of glucagon in the hot environment. The response area of insulin after the insulin injection was smaller in the hot environment; however, insulin clearance rate was not changed. It is concluded that in non-lactating cows, insulin release is probably lower during heat exposure. With respect to plasma glucose during heat exposure, the lower basal values, lower concentrations after the end of the glucose infusion, and delayed recovery to basal values after the butyrate and insulin administrations observed, may indicate lower gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in the hot environment.