In vitro plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis and direct shoot organogenesis in Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.

P. Jha, Chandra Yadav, V. Anjaiah, V. Bhat

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19 Citations (SciVal)


An efficient in vitro plant regeneration protocol through somatic embryogenesis and direct shoot organogenesis has been developed for pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Efficient plant regeneration is a prerequisite for a complete genetic transformation protocol. Shoot tips, immature inflorescences, and seeds of two genotypes (843B and 7042-DMR) of pearl millet formed callus when cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with varying levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D; 4.5, 9, 13.5, and 18 μM). The level of 2,4-D, the type of explant, and the genotype significantly effected callus induction. Calli from each of the three explant types developed somatic embryos on MS medium containing 2.22 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and either 1.13, 2.25, or 4.5 μM of 2,4-D. Somatic embryos developed from all three explants and generated shoots on MS medium containing high levels of BA (4.4, 8.8, or 13.2 μM) combined with 0.56 μM 2,4-D. The calli from the immature inflorescences exhibited the highest percentage of somatic embryogenesis and shoot regeneration. Moreover, these calli yielded the maximum number of differentiated shoots per callus. An efficient and direct shoot organogenesis protocol, without a visible, intervening callus stage, was successfully developed from shoot tip explants of both genotypes of pearl millet. Multiple shoots were induced on MS medium containing either BA or kinetin (4.4, 8.8, 17.6, or 26.4 μM). The number of shoots formed per shoot tip was significantly influenced by the level of cytokinin (BA/kinetin) and genotype. Maximum rooting was induced in 1/2 strength MS with 0.8% activated charcoal. The regenerated plants were transferred to soil in pots, where they exhibited normal growth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-154
Number of pages10
JournalIn Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2009


  • Callus induction
  • Multiple shoots induction
  • Pearl millet
  • Pennisetum glaucum
  • Shoot regeneration
  • Somatic embryogenesis


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