Two oat varieties, Melys (spring variety) and Bulwark (winter variety) were transformed by particle bombardment of primary embryogenic callus using either a ubi-bar-ubi-gus co-integration vector or co-transformed (Melys) with a ubi-bar plasmid together with one of three plasmids containing the β-glucuronidase (gus) gene under the control of either a rice actin promoter, a CaMV35S promoter or a wheat high molecular weight glutenin promoter. Morphologically normal and fertile transgenic plants were regenerated following callus selection with glufosinate ammonium. Evidence for the integration and functioning of the selectable (bar) and reporter (gus) genes in To and T1 plants was confirmed by PCR, Southern hybridisation, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), histochemical assays, and by progeny analysis. Transformation rates varied from 0.2 to 5.0 lines/plate of callus bombarded, with co-transformation frequencies of 83 to 100 percnt;, and co-expression frequencies of 60 to 100 percnt;. Copy numbers for the bar and gus gene varied from 3 to 17 and from 2 to 20 respectively. Cell and tissue specific expression of the gus gene was evident from the different promoters, with the HMW glutenin promoter showing endosperm specific expression in T1 seed. No expression of the gus gene under the CaMV35S promoter was detected in any tissues. Progeny analysis provided evidence of Mendelian inheritance of the introduced genes suggesting either one or two unlinked integration sites. This was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation to chromosome spread preparations. No segregation of the gus gene from the bar gene was observed in any of the progeny derived from co-transformation.