Kinesins are indispensable for interdigitation of phragmoplast microtubules in the moss Physcomitrella patens

Yuji Hiwatashi, Mari Obara, Yoshikatsu Sato, Tomomichi Fujita, Takashi Murata, Mitsuyasu Hasebe

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78 Citations (Scopus)


Microtubules form arrays with parallel and antiparallel bundles and function in various cellular processes, including subcellular transport and cell division. The antiparallel bundles in phragmoplasts, plant-unique microtubule arrays, are mostly unexplored and potentially offer new cellular insights. Here, we report that the Physcomitrella patens kinesins KINID1a and KINID1b (for kinesin for interdigitated microtubules 1a and 1b), which are specific to land plants and orthologous to Arabidopsis thaliana PAKRP2, are novel factors indispensable for the generation of interdigitated antiparallel microtubules in the phragmoplasts of the moss P. patens. KINID1a and KINID1b are predominantly localized to the putative interdigitated parts of antiparallel microtubules. This interdigitation disappeared in double-deletion mutants of both genes, indicating that both KINID1a and 1b are indispensable for interdigitation of the antiparallel microtubule array. Furthermore, cell plates formed by these phragmoplasts did not reach the plasma membrane in approximately 20% of the mutant cells examined. We observed that in the double-deletion mutant lines, chloroplasts remained between the plasma membrane and the expanding margins of the cell plate, while chloroplasts were absent from the margins of the cell plates in the wild type. This suggests that the kinesins, the antiparallel microtubule bundles with interdigitation, or both are necessary for proper progression of cell wall expansion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3094-106
Number of pages13
JournalPlant Cell
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 21 Nov 2008


  • Bryopsida
  • Cytokinesis
  • Genes, Plant
  • Kinesin
  • Microtubules
  • Plant Proteins
  • RNA, Plant
  • Sequence Deletion


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