Location proof systems for smart internet of things: Requirements, taxonomy, and comparative analysis

Faheem Zafar, Abid Khan, Adeel Anjum, Carsten Maple*, Munam Ali Shah

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

10 Citations (SciVal)
100 Downloads (Pure)


In the current hyper-connected, data-driven era, smart devices are providing access to geolocation information, enabling a paradigm shift in diverse domains. Location proof systems utilize smart devices to provide witnessed proof of location to enable secure location-based services (LBS). Applications of location proof systems include safety, asset management and operations monitoring in health care, supply chain tracking, and Internet-of-Things (IoT)-based location intelligence in businesses. In this paper, we investigate the state of the art in location proof systems, examining design challenges and implementation considerations for application in the real world. To frame the analysis, we have developed a taxonomy of location proof systems and performed a comparative analysis over the common attributes, highlighting their strength and weaknesses. Furthermore, we have identified future trends for this increasingly important area of investigation and development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1776
Number of pages22
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number11
Early online date26 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - 01 Nov 2020


  • Blockchain
  • Localization
  • Location proof
  • Location provenance
  • Location-based services (LBS)


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