Pressures in periodic foams

D. Weaire*, N. Kern, S. J. Cox, J. M. Sullivan, F. Morgan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (SciVal)


A hitherto open problem in the geometry of foams asks: are the pressures in the bubbles of a (structurally) periodic foam in equilibrium necessarily periodic? We supply a proof that this is so. However, external forces can induce a pressure gradient even in periodic structures. We also establish that any equilibrium planar foam whose bubbles are congruent must have uniform pressure and be a fully periodic arrangement of hexagons.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)569-579
Number of pages11
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Issue number2042
Publication statusPublished - 08 Feb 2004


  • Bubbles
  • Equilibrium structures
  • Foams
  • Kelvin foam
  • Pressures
  • Tilings


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