Process innovation in small businesses: The self-employed as entrepreneurs

Maria Plotnikova, Isidoro Romero, Juan A. Martínez-Román

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Innovation is one of the key attributes that sets the entrepreneurs apart from the rest of self-employed people. This paper attempts to distinguish between these two categories by means of exploring the determinants of process innovation in small businesses using a survey of self-employed workers in Andalusia, Spain. The theoretical framework adopted distinguishes between three types of factors affecting the innovative activities: (1) personal characteristics of the self-employed, (2) business characteristics and (3) the characteristics of the external environment. A Heckman-type model of the extent of process innovation that accounts for sample selection bias is estimated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)939-954
Number of pages16
JournalSmall Business Economics
Issue number4
Early online date23 May 2016
Publication statusPublished - 01 Dec 2016


  • small business
  • innovation
  • process innovation
  • entrepreneurship
  • self-employment
  • O32
  • O33
  • M21
  • L26
  • Self-employment
  • Process innovation
  • Innovation
  • Small business
  • Entrepreneurship


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