Regeneration of cryoresistance of in vitro rumen ciliate cultures

Svetlana Kišidayová, Zora Váradyová, Tadeusz Michalowski, C. James Newbold

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9 Citations (SciVal)


The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting mechanical- and cryo-resistance of the rumen ciliates Entodinium caudatum (E.c.), Entodinium furca monolobum (E.f.m.), Entodinium simplex (E.s.), Diplodinium denticulatum (two clones, D.d.01 and D.d.02), Diploplastron affine (D.a.) and Epidinium ecaudatum forma caudatum (E.e.c.) after long-term in vitro cultivation. Following prolonged in vitro cultivation (more than six months), the ciliates were very sensitive to both centrifugation and 5% (v/v) dimethylsulphoxide, with motility decreased to: 39 and 23% for E.c., 66 and 32% for E.f.m., 46 and 27% for D.d. 01, 64 and 41% for D.a., and 44 and 28% for E.e.c., respectively. Thus, cryopreservation was unsuccessful. The effect of supplementing the ciliate growth medium with rumen fluid, glycine-betaine, proline, myo-inositol, linoleic acid, Sel-Plex or insulin, together with the effect of the source of rumen fluid on ciliate resistance to centrifugation, dimethylsulphoxide and freezing was also tested. The omission of rumen fluid from the growth medium resulted in the loss of cryoresistance after one-month cultivation. Supplementing the growth environment with a combination of glycine-betaine, proline, linoleic acid, Sel-Plex, insulin plus improved quality rumen fluid significantly enhanced survival of the ciliates after the freezing–thawing procedure (from 1 to 33% survival in un-supplemented vs. supplemented for E.c., P <0.01; 4–40% E.f.m., P <0.01; 0–17% D.d., P <0.05; 5–7% D.a. and 4–36% E.e.c., P <0.01).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-84
Number of pages9
Issue number1
Early online date13 Jun 2005
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2005


  • rumen ciliate protozoa
  • cryopreservation
  • regeneration
  • osmoactive compounds
  • insulin
  • in vitro cultures
  • cryoresistance


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