Relationships between human adenoviruses and faecal indicator organisms in European recreational waters

Mark D. Wyer, A. Peter Wyn-Jones, David Kay, Ho-Kong Christopher Au-Yeung, Rosina Gironés, Juan López-Pila, Ana-Maria de Roda Husman, Saskia Rutjes, Oliver Schneider

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (SciVal)

Abstract

Human adenoviruses (HAdV) may be implicated in some disease outbreaks associated with recreational water exposures, typically in swimming pools. Modern molecular methods can be used to detect HAdV in environmental water samples. During the EU FP6 Project VIROBATHE a database of over 290 HAdV analyses with corresponding faecal indicator organism (FIO) determinations was gathered and used to explore statistical associations between HAdV and FIO results. The FIOs measured were Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci and somatic coliphage. Statistically significant trends of increasing proportions of HAdV-positive results in categories of increasing FIO concentration were found in freshwater but not seawater samples. The analysis of these trends in freshwater samples was refined, the trends remaining statistically significant when using categories of 0.5 log10 intervals of FIO concentration. Logistic regression models were then developed to predict the probability of a HAdV-positive outcome from FIO concentration. Potential applications of these models to predict the probability of HAdV-positive outcomes from routine FIO determinations used to describe recreational water quality exposures and to classify recreational water quality are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4130-4141
JournalWater Research
Volume46
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Sept 2012

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