SCADA System Forensic Analysis Within IIoT

Peter Eden, Andrew Blyth, Kevin Jones, Hugh Soulsby, Pete Burnap, Yulia Cherdantseva, Kristan Stoddart

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

24 Citations (SciVal)


A new wave of industrial technology has emerged in the form of Industry 4.0, which has seen a progression from electronic devices and IT (Information Technology) systems that automate production advance to a new revolution of Cyber-Physical Production Systems used for Smart Manufacturing and Smart Factories via IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things). As more and more devices are becoming connected and networked to allow for Smart Manufacturing to take place the number of data sources significantly increases as a result. Real-time Information is then becoming increasingly interlinked across multiple industries for a more efficient productivity process and a reduction in cost. Aside from Smart manufacturing and factories, Industry 4.0 has already seen huge advances in infrastructure management, energy management, transportation and building and home automation. With such industries relying so heavily on real-time data from connected sensors the security of these systems are at risk due to the reliance on low-latency and reliable communication for critical processes. The increase of interconnected networks and devices across the Internet significantly increases the amount of entry points into these systems, increasing their vulnerability and allowing outsiders to take advantage of any weaknesses within them. This has already been highlighted by the events of Stuxnet, Havex, Black Energy and the German Steel Mill that targeted ICS (Industrial Control Systems) and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) Systems causing catastrophic results. The use of SIEM (Security Information and Event Management) services, IDS (Intrusion Detection Systems), IPS (Intrusion Prevention Systems) and firewalls may be implemented within ICS but only operate on the perimeters of their networks or segmented networks and not at the lower operational level where critical processes rely on speed and availability simply because by doing so could introduce latency between critical processes. When events do occur, regardless of whether an incident is accidental or deliberate, an immediate incident response should take place. This chapter focusses on the forensic challenges and analysis of the physical infrastructure that underpins the systems operating within IIoT. It discusses the development of SCADA system architecture over the past few decades and how it has arrived at IIoT, creating the new generation of SCADA systems. The chapter then discusses the current available tools that exist that can help carry out a forensic investigation of a SCADA system operating within IIoT space before closing with a suggested SCADA Incident Response Model.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCybersecurity for Industry 4.0
Subtitle of host publicationAnalysis for Design and Manufacturing
EditorsLane Thames, Dirk Schaefer
PublisherSpringer Nature
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-50660-9
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-50659-3
Publication statusPublished - 05 Apr 2017

Publication series

NameSpringer Series in Advanced Manucfacturing
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
ISSN (Print)1860-5168


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