Sequence of IGF-I, IGF-II, and HGF expression in regenerating skeletal muscle

Shinichiro Hayashi, Hisashi Aso, Shinichiro Watanabe, Hidetoshi Nara, Michael T. Rose, Shyuichi Ohwada, Takahiro Yamaguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Citations (SciVal)


Various cytokines are thought to play a role in muscle regeneration, however, the interaction and mechanisms of action of these cytokines remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of HGF, IGF-I, and IGF-II during myogenesis using the regeneration model of skeletal muscle as well as myoblast culture. RT-PCR analysis revealed that HGF and IGF-I expressions were markedly upregulated, in regenerating muscle. In contrast, there was no significant difference in IGF-II expression between normal and regenerating muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that HGF was expressed mostly by myocytes during the early stages of muscle regeneration. Additionally, HGF inhibited the formation of myotubes by myoblasts, but promoted cellular proliferation. Otherwise, IGF-I and IGF-II were expressed by myocytes through the early to middle stages of muscle regeneration. The addition of HGF to myoblast growing in vitro significantly increased the number of cells. These findings indicate that these three cytokines have pleiotropic effects in regenerating skeletal muscle.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)427-434
Number of pages8
JournalHistochemistry and Cell Biology
Issue number5
Early online date05 Oct 2004
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2004


  • Bovine
  • HGF
  • IGF-I
  • IGF-II
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Humans
  • Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor/metabolism
  • Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/drug effects
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal/cytology
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • RNA, Messenger/metabolism
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Regeneration
  • Myoblasts/drug effects
  • Animals
  • Time Factors
  • Cattle
  • Female
  • Cell Proliferation/drug effects


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