Structural characterisation of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) in elephant and harbor seals

Sally Woodman, Amanda J. Gibson, Ana Rubio García, Guillermo Sanchez Contreras, John W. Rossen, Dirk Werling, Victoria Offord*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (SciVal)


Pinnipeds are a diverse clade of semi-aquatic mammals, which act as key indicators of ecosystem health. Their transition from land to marine environments provides a complex microbial milieu, making them vulnerable to both aquatic and terrestrial pathogens, thereby contributing to pinniped population decline. Indeed, viral pathogens such as influenza A virus and phocine distemper virus (PDV) have been identified as the cause of several of these mass mortality events. Furthermore, bacterial infection with mammalian Brucella sp. and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains have also been observed in marine mammals, posing further risk to both co-habiting endangered species and public health. During these disease outbreaks, mortality rates have varied amongst different pinniped species. Analyses of innate immune receptors at the host-pathogen interface have previously identified variants which may drive these species-specific responses. Through a combination of both sequence- and structure-based methods, this study characterises members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1 superfamily from both harbour and elephant seals, identifying variations which will help us to understand these species-specific innate immune responses, potentially aiding the development of specific vaccine-adjuvants for these species.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-14
Number of pages5
JournalVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Early online date01 Dec 2015
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2016


  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Pinniped
  • Toll-like receptor
  • Zoonosis


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